TEDS Data Dictionary

21 Year Measures

Please note that the TEDS research team will reserve a period of exclusive use of new 21 Year measures. For any given measure, this period will end 3 months after publication of results, or two years after the end of data collection, whichever occurs sooner. Data collection is still ongoing in the Covid study. The period of exclusive use of the TEDS21 measures has now passed.

Contents of this page:

Introduction

The tables below summarise the measures used in the various parts of the 21 Year study: the TEDS21 questionnaires (twin and parent, phase 1 and phase 2), the twin covid-19 questionnaire study (four phases), and the twin g-game study. Each table presents the measures for a one of these data collections.

In each table, measures are listed broadly in the order that they appeared to participants, but note that in TEDS21 there were small differences in the order between different versions (app, web and paper). For TEDS21 questionnaires, the order shown is for the paper version, because this is the version that is reproduced here in the data dictionary (see links to the left), and the page numbers are shown for reference.

The number of items in each measure is shown, but note that some questionnaire items have two or more parts, giving two or more item variables. In the g-game, each web test item generally gives rise to several item variables (response, score, response time).

The final column of each table shows derived variables that are related to each measure; each variable name here is a link that will take you to the relevant paragraph in the 21 Year derived variables page.

TEDS21 Twin Phase 1 Questionnaire Measures

In the table below, the order of measures and the page numbering refer to the paper version of the phase 1 twin questionnaire (pdf). The measures in the app and web versions were identical except for minor differences in ordering and superficial differences in presentation. The "Themes" are the headings under which the measures appear, and in the app and web versions these themes were used as logical sections to break up the questionnaire. Some measures had quality control items added; these are mentioned in the "description of measure" column, but are not included in the "no. of items" column.

Theme Page No. of items Description of measure References Related scales
Personality 2-3 30 Big 5 Personality scale Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Jamerson, J. E., Samuel, D. B., Olson, D. R., Widiger, T. A. (2006). Psychometric Properties of an Abbreviated Instrument of the Five-Factor Model. Assessment, 13: 119-137. u1cpersneum1/2, u1cpersextm1/2, u1cpersopem1/2, u1cpersagrm1/2, u1cpersconm1/2
3 6 Self-Control.
Adapted from the Brief Self-Control measure and shortened from 13 to 6 items.
Tangney, J. P., Boone, A. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (2018). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. In Self-Regulation and Self-Control (pp. 181-220). Routledge. u1cselft1/2
3 4 Consideration of Future Consequences Scale.
Shortened from 12 to 4 items (with the addition of a quality control item)
Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 66(4), 742. u1cfconm1/2
4 1 Maths Anxiety Nunez-Pena et al. (2103). The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282913508528 -
4 6 Risk Taking Index Nicholson, N., Soane, E., Fenton-O'Creevy, M., & Willman, P. (2005). Personality and domain-specific risk taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8(2), 157-176. u1crskt1/2
4 8 Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ).
To measure verbal and physical aggression, in collaboration with the ACTION consortium. Shortened to 8 items, to measure just two factors (verbal and physical).
Webster, G. D., DeWall, C. N., Pond Jr, R. S., Deckman, T., Jonason, P. K., Le, B. M., ... & Smith, C. V. (2014). The brief aggression questionnaire: Psychometric and behavioral evidence for an efficient measure of trait aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 40(2), 120-139. u1cbaqphym1/2, u1cbaqverm1/2, u1cbaqangm1/2, u1cbaqm1/2
Thoughts and Attitudes 5 9 GOALS.
Translated from German into English and adapted by members of the TEDS team. Shortened from 72 items to 9 items, with the addition of a quality control item. The 9 retained items relate to self-fulfillment and relationships (dropping questions about social status) and their importance (dropping questions relating to likelihood of success).
Pöhlmann, K. & Brunstein, J.C. (1997). GOALS: Ein Fragebogen zur Messung von Lebenszielen. Diagnostica, 43, 63-79 u1cgoalfult1/2, u1cgoalrelt1/2
5 5 Purpose in Life.
Shortened from 20 to 5 items.
Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: The psychometric approach to Frankl's concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of clinical psychology, 20(2), 200-207 u1cpilm1/2
6 6 BSA Environment Taken from the NatCen Social Research's British Social Attitudes (BSA) Survey (http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/british-social-attitudes/). u1cbsaem1/2
6 7 BSA Democracy and Government u1cbsagm1/2
7 14 Perceptions of Heritability Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
About You 8 25 SDQ: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Goodman, R. (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586 u1csdqanxt1/2, u1csdqpert1/2, u1csdqhypt1/2, u1csdqcont1/2, u1csdqprot1/2, u1csdqbeht1/2
9 5 Volunteering.
5-item scale taken from the Age 20 ALSPAC booklet.
Taken from page 42 of the ALSPAC questionnaire "It's all about you" at age 20: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/alspac/migrated/documents/ques-yp20-all-about-you.pdf u1cvolnt1/2
9 8 Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ).
Shortened from 13 to 8 items, with the addition of 1 quality control item.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F., and Silver, D. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 1-12. u1cmfqt1/2
10 7 Peer Pressure.
Shortened from 11 to 7 items, with the addition of a quality control item.
Santor, D. A., Messervey, D., & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of youth and adolescence, 29(2), 163-182 u1cpeerprem1/2, u1cpeerrism1/2, u1cpeerm1/2
10 5 Religiosity: the Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS).
We used the CRS-5, which is the 5 item version of the scale.
Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions, 3(3), 710-724. u1crelgt1/2
Love and Relationships 11 1 Relationship status Question devised by TEDS researchers. -
11 1 Sexual orientation Question devised by TEDS researchers. -
11-12 3 Number of relationships, durations of longest and longest relationships Items created by the TEDS team. -
11-12 3 CLAS - Love and Relationships. Items adapted by Kerry Schofield from the original CLAS scale, and shortened from 16 to 3 items. Lavallee, L. F., Hatch, P. M., Michalos, A. C., & McKinley, T. (2007). Development of the contentment with life assessment scale (CLAS): Using daily life experiences to verify levels of self-reported life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83, 201-244. u1crelam1/2
12 8 Attitudes towards marriage and social norm statements. This measure assesses ideas about marriage and what it means to be married. Shortened from 22 to 8 items. Kahn, S. (2007). Factors influencing intentions to marry: A comparison of Americans and Australians. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research, 10, 1-7. u1cmarrhopm1/2, u1cmarrworm1/2, u1cmarrm1/2
12-13 7 Sexual Behaviours and Experience. Adapted from the ALSPAC measure: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/alspac/documents/questionnaires/YPC-me-at-23.pdf u1csexbriskt1/2
13 6 Intimate Partner Violence Questions Adapted from the 'Intimate Partner Violence Questions' section of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Violence Prevention questionnaire: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipv/ipvandsvscreening.pdf u1cparvm1/2
Home and Family 14 5 Twin Relationships. Shortened from 16 to 5 items. Riggio, H. R. (2000). Measuring attitudes toward adult sibling relationships: The lifespan sibling relationship scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17(6), 707-728. u1ctwnrm1/2
14 10 Mother and Father Relationships.  The same 5 items were administered for the mother and for the father. Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological Assessment, 23, 615-625. u1cmumrm1/2, u1cdadrm1/2
15 5 CLAS Life Satisfaction Scale - Community. Shortened from 9 to 5 items. This questionnaire assesses an individual's feeling of community within their neighborhood. Lavallee et al. (2007). Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using Daily Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83(2), 201-244. DOI 10.1007/s11205-006-9054-6 u1ccommm1/2
15 6 CHAOS (Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale) at home, adapted from the full-length version as in earlier TEDS studies. Matheny, Wachs, Ludwig and Phillips (1995). Bringing order out of chaos: Psychometric characteristics of the Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 429 - 444. u1cchaost1/2
31-32 4 Your Children Questions devised by the CoTEDS study team, to identify twins with children who might participate in the CoTEDS (Children of TEDS) study. -
Health 15 1 Dietary Requirements.
Question to identify vegetarians, vegans and pescetarians.
Devised by TEDS researchers. -
15 2 Food Allergies.
Screening question, and question about specific allergy types.
Devised by TEDS researchers. -
16 12 REAP Health Behaviours.
Questionnaire designed to assess healthy eating and lifestyle behaviours. Shortened from 20 to 12 items, with the addition of a quality control item.
Gans, K. M., Risica, P. M., Wylie-Rosett, J., Ross, E. M., Strolla, L. O., McMurray, J., & Eaton, C. B. (2006). Development and Evaluation of the Nutrition Component of the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP): A New Tool for Primary Care Providers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 38(5), 286–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2005.12.002 u1creaphlt1/2, u1creapunt1/2, u1creapt1/2
16, 17 2 Use of antibiotics and over-the-counter painkillers Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
16-17 7 RAND Short-Form Health Survey.
Shortened from 36 items to 5 items about general health plus 2 items about hospitalisation.
Ware, J., Jr., & Sherbourne, C.D. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual Framework and Item Selection, in Medical Care, June 1992, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp 473-483 u1crandm1/2
17 2 Height and Weight Questions devised by TEDS researchers. u1cbmi1/2/2
18 12 Eating Disorder symptoms.
Brief 12-item questionnaire assessing eating disorders assessed as a continuous trait. This and the following measure were included at the request of Gerome Breen.
Garner, D. M. (1991). Eating disorder inventory-2 u1ceatsbint1/2, u1ceatsbodt1/2
18 3 Eating Disorder diagnoses.
Diagnoses of three specific eating disorders.
-
19 3 Activity questionnaire.
Brief questionnaire assessing physical activity levels during a typical week.
Questions devised by TEDS researchers. u1cactvm1/2
19 1 Athlete Status.
A single question designed to assess whether a twin has engaged in sport at a competitive level.
Question devised by Tim Rees and Saskia Selzam. -
19-20 13 Self-harm.
  1. Items 1-2: Suicidal feelings.
  2. Items 3-13: Self-harm, adapted from the CASE study.
  1. Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J., & Tanner, J. (1974). Suicidal feelings in the general population: a prevalence study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 124(582), 460-469
  2. Madge, N., Hewitt, A., Hawton, K., Wilde, E. J. D., Corcoran, P. et al (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study. Journal of child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(6), 667-677.
The original CASE measure was slightly modified for TEDS, with two items dropped (relating to suicide and self-harm method) and response options modified. Questions here were prefixed with "In your lifetime, ..." whereas in the phase 2 questionnaire similar questions focused on the previous 6 months
-
Education, Employment and Training 21, 22 3 Three background questions about where the twin was living, type of accommodation, and current activity (studying, working, etc). Items devised by TEDS researchers. -
21, 22, 24, 25 5 Educational level (current, projected and aspirational) and degree details (type of course, grade achieved). Questions devised by TEDS researchers. u1chqualp1/2, u1cedat1/2
22-23 3 Apprenticeship (type) and Employment details (job category, full- or part-time). Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
24 2 Income (from employment, and from other sources). Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
25 2 Benefit status (screening question, and specific types of benefit). Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
26-27 19 College student experiences questionnaire.
Screening question followed by sections on student expenses (6 items), evaluation of university and course (5 items), and student conversations (7 items). The latter were reduced in number from the original source questionnaire.
Pace, C. R., & Kuh, G. D. (1998). College student experience questionnaire. Indiana University u1cstexlikt1/2, u1cstexdevt1/2
Finances 28 5 Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS).
Questions assessing subjective wellbeing in relation to finances. Shortened from 13 to 5 items.
Lavallee, L. F., Hatch, P. M., Michalos, A. C., & McKinley, T. (2007). Development of the contentment with life assessment scale (CLAS): Using daily life experiences to verify levels of self-reported life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83, 201-244 u1cfinam1/2
28 13 OECD Financial Literacy: Financial Products.
Adapted and shortened from 15 to 13 items, with the addition of a quality control item.
Adapted from sections of the OECD instrument for measuring financial literacy: https://www.oecd.org/finance/financial-education/49319977.pdf u1cfprdm1/2
29 6 OECD Financial Literacy: General Money Attitude and Behaviour.
Shortened from 8 to 6 items.
u1cmonam1/2
Online Behaviour 29 11 Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale. Adapted and shortened to 11 items. Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Carrier, L. M., Cheever, N. A., & Rokkum, J. (2013). The media and technology usage and attitudes scale: An empirical investigation. Computers in human behavior, 29(6), 2501-2511. u1cmeduphot1/2, u1cmeduvidt1/2, u1cmedusoct1/2
30 6 The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS).
Shortened from 18 to 6 items (with the addition of a quality control item)
Jelenchick, L. A., Eickhoff, J., Christakis, D. A., Brown, R. L., Zhang, C., Benson, M., & Moreno, M. A. (2014). The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for adolescents and young adults: Scale development and refinement. Computers in human behavior, 35, 171-178. u1cprobt1/2
30 2 Internet Dating. Items created by TEDS researchers, in order to understand the proportion of emerging adults that take part in internet dating. -
30 4 Online Bullying.
Shortened to 4 items focusing on cyber-victimisation (general victimisation and perpetration are assessed in phase 2).
Lee, J., Abell, N., & Holmes, J. L. (2017). Validation of measures of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in emerging adulthood. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(4), 456-467. u1cobult1/2

TEDS21 Twin Phase 2 Questionnaire Measures

In the table below, the order of measures and the page numbering refer to the paper version of the phase 2 twin questionnaire (pdf). The measures in the app and web versions were identical except for superficial differences in presentation; the ordering of measures and items was the same. The "Themes" are the headings under which the measures appear, and in the app and web versions these themes were used as logical sections to break up the questionnaire. Some measures had quality control items added; these are mentioned in the "description of measure" column, but are not included in the "no. of items" column.

Theme Page No. of items Description of measure References Related scales
Relationships 2-3 8 Parent Contact.
Questions relating to frequency of contact with female and male parent-figures: 4 questions about each.
Items created by TEDS researchers. -
4 12 Life Role Salience
(with the addition of a quality control item).
Adapted from the published measure.
Amatea, E.S., Cross, E.G., Clark, J.E. and Bobby, C.L. (1986). Assessing the Work and Family Role Expectations of Career-Oriented Men and Women: The Life Role Salience Scales. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48(4), 831-838. DOI: 10.2307/352576 u2clrssparm1/2, u2clrssoccm1/2, u2clrsshomm1/2
5 8 Childhood Experiences
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Taken from the ALSPAC "Life at 22+" questionnaire (section H) with some minor changes in wording:
http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/alspac/documents/questionnaires/YPB-life-at-22-plus.pdf
u2ccexpt1/2
Life Experiences 6 5 Ambition
(same measure as at age 16)
Duckworth, A.L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M.D., & Kelly, D.R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and
passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 1087-1101.
u2cambit1/2
6 7 Hassles Delongis, A., Folkman, S. and Lazarus, R. S. (1988). The impact of daily stress on health and mood: psychological and social resources as mediators. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(3), 486-495. u2chasst1/2
7 11 Life Events
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Items created by the TEDS team, loosely adapted from 'negative' life events items of the Coddington scale as used at age 16:
Coddington, R. D. (1972). The significance of life events as etiological factors in the diseases of children: II: a study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 205-213
u2clfevt1/2
Behaviour 8 20 Conners, 3rd edition.
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Conners, C. K. (2008): Conners 3rd Edition (Conners 3) Manual. New York: MHS Assessments. -
9 24 SPEQ: Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire: Paranoia and Hallucinations subscales
(with the addition of a quality control item).
Ronald, A., Sieradzka, D., Cardno, A. G., Haworth, C. M. A, McGuire, P., Freeman, D. (2014). Characterization of psychotic experiences in adolescence using the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ): Findings from a study of 5000 16-year-old twins. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 868-77. u2cspeqpart1/2, u2cspeqhalt1/2
Substance Use 10-11 13 Alcohol
  1. Items 1-3: screening and introductory items
  2. Items 4-13: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scale
    (with the addition of a quality control item).
  1. Items 1-3 devised by the TEDS team
  2. Items 4-13 are adapted from items 1-10 of the AUDIT scale: https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AUDIT.pdf
u2calcoaudit1/2, u2calco03un1/2, u2calco05un1/2
12-13 12 Smoking
  1. Items 1-3: screening and introductory items
  2. Items 4-9: Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)
  3. Items 10-12: vaping
  1. Items 1-3 devised by the TEDS team
  2. Items 4-9: Heatherton, T.F., Kozlowski, L.T., Frecker, R.C. and FAGERSTROM, K.O., 1991. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. British journal of addiction, 86(9), pp.1119-1127.
  3. Items 10-12 devised by the TEDS team
-
13-14 10 Cannabis Legleye, S., Piontek, D. and Kraus, L., 2011. Psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a French sample of adolescents. Drug and alcohol dependence, 113(2-3), pp.229-235. -
14-15 4 Cognitive Enhancers
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Items created by the TEDS team. u2ccgent1/2
15 8 Other illicit drugs Items created by the TEDS team. -
Conflict 16-17 17 Antisocial Behaviour
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Adapted by ALSPAC from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime:
McAra L, McVie S (2010) Youth crime and justice: key messages from the Edinburgh study of youth transitions and crime. Criminol Crim Justice 10(2):179–209. doi:10.1177/1748895809360971
-
17 6 Criminality - -
18-19 32 Multidimensional Peer Victimisation Scale
(with the addition of a quality control item)
  1. Items 1-16: victimisation of twin by peers
  2. Items 17-32: victimisation of peers by twin
Mynard, H., and Joseph, S. (2000). Development of the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 169-178.
  1. u2cvictphyt1/2, u2cvictsoct1/2, u2cvictvert1/2, u2cvictcybt1/2, u2cvictt1/2
  2. u2cperpphyt1/2, u2cperpsoct1/2, u2cperpvert1/2, u2cperpcybt1/2, u2cperpt1/2
Wellbeing 20 5 Leisure and Hobbies Lavallee, L. F., Hatch, P. M., Michalos, A. C., & McKinley, T. (2007). Development of the contentment with life assessment scale (CLAS): Using daily life experiences to verify levels of self-reported life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83, 201-244 u2cleism1/2
20 10 General Anxiety: the Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Adult. Craske M, Wittchen U, Bogels S, Stein M, Andrews G, Lebeu R. (2013). Severity measure for generalized anxiety disorder, Adults. American Psychiatric Association.

The measure is made freely available on line, by the American Psychiatrict Association, at https://www.psychiatry.org/File Library/Psychiatrists/Practice/DSM/APA_DSM5_Severity-Measure-For-Generalized-Anxiety-Disorder-Adult.pdf
u2cganxt1/2
21 8 Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ), shortened to 8 items
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F., and Silver, D. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 1-12. u2cmfqt1/2
21-22 14 Self Harm.
  1. Items 1-2: Suicidal feelings.
  2. Items 3-14: Self-harm, adapted from the CASE study.
  1. Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J., & Tanner, J. (1974). Suicidal feelings in the general population: a prevalence study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 124(582), 460-469
  2. Madge, N., Hewitt, A., Hawton, K., Wilde, E. J. D., Corcoran, P. et al (2008). Deliberate self-harm within an international community sample of young people: comparative findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study. Journal of child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(6), 667-677.
Adapted by TEDS researchers from the original measures, with several changes from the similar questions used in phase 1.
Items 1-9 here are the same as phase 1 items 1-4 and 6-10 respectively, but with the prefix "In the past year, " instead of "In your lifetime, ".
Phase 1 item 5 (age when self harm started) and phase 1 items 11-13 (medical help) have been dropped from phase 2.
Phase 2 items 10-14 (describing methods of self harm) were not included in phase 1.
-
Health 23-25 14 Medical Conditions. Questions devised by TEDS researchers. -
25 5 Short Health Economics.
Questions fromt the EQ-5D-5L measure.
Herdman M., Gudex, C., Lloyd, A. (2011). Development and preliminary testing of the new five-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L). Quality of Life Research 20(10): 1727-36 -
26-27 18 Long Health Economics.
Service use questions based on the Client Service Receipt Inventory.
Beecham J, Knapp M. Costing psychiatric interventions. In Thornicroft, G. (ed): Measuring Mental Health Needs, 2nd Edition. London, Gaskell, 2001, ISBN: 9781901242607 -
28 8 Sleep Quality: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
(with the addition of a quality control item)
Buysse D.J., Reynolds C.F., Monk T.H., Berman S.R. & Kupfer D.J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research 28:193-213, 1989 u2cslpqt1/2

TEDS21 Parent Phase 1 Questionnaire Measures

In the table below, the order of measures and the page numbering refer to the paper version of the phase 1 parent questionnaire (pdf). The measures in the app and web versions were identical except for minor differences in ordering and superficial differences in presentation. All measures contained questions about the twins, except for parental SES. Twin-specific items were repeated for each twin (elder and younger); hence, for example, the Parental Feelings measure included 6 different items that were repeated for each twin, resulting in 12 questions and 12 dataset variables.

Page No. of items Description of measure References Related scales
2 2 Living arrangements. Questions about the twins' living arrangements, devised by TEDS researchers. -
2 6 Parental Feelings.
A shortened version of the parental feelings questionnaire (PFQ) from Deater-Deckard (2000).
Deater-Deckard, K. (2000). Parenting and child behavioural adjustment in early childhood: A quantitative genetic approach to studying family processes. Child Development, 71, 468 - 484. u1pparnegm1/2, u1pparposm1/2
3-4 5 Parental SES Questions about parental employment, qualifications and income, devised by TEDS researchers. u1pses
5 6 Risk-taking Nicholson, N., Soane, E., Fenton-O'Creevy, M., & Willman, P. (2005). Personality and domain-specific risk taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8(2), 157-176. u1prskt1/2
6-7 25 SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) Goodman, R. (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581 -586 u1psdqanxt1/2, u1psdqpert1/2, u1psdqhypt1/2, u1psdqcont1/2, u1psdqprot1/2, u1psdqbeht1/2
8 10 Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).
This is a subscale of the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ).
Ronald, A., Sieradzka, D., Cardno, A. G., Haworth, C. M. A, McGuire, P., Freeman, D. (2014). Characterization of psychotic experiences in adolescence using the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ): Findings from a study of 5000 16-year-old twins. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 868-77. u1psant1/2
9-10 18 Conners: parent rating scale, revised (CPRS-R). This 18-item DSM-IV ADHD symptom subscale taken from the revised parent Conners’ rating scale was used as the measure of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Conners C.K. (2003): Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised: Technical Manual. New York: Multi-Health System Inc. u1pconimpt1/2, u1pconinat1/2, u1pcont1/2
11-12 4 Children of your twins. Questions devised by the CoTEDS study team, to identify twins with children who might participate in the CoTEDS (Children of TEDS) study. -

Covid study twin questionnaires

The Covid study involved a questionnaire that was repeated largely unchanged over several phases of data collection, although with small changes from one phase to the next. Therefore, to save repetition, the table below summarises the measures used across phases, indicating cases of measures that were dropped, added or modified between phases. For more details of changes made, see the summary of changes to the covid questionnaire between phases (pdf).

The ordering of the measures within the questionnaire remained unchanged apart from these minor alterations, so the order of presentation in the table reflects the ordering of questions within the web questionnaires. There was no paper version, so page numbers do not apply, but section headings are shown.

For reference to the questions and item variables, see the annotated phase 1, phase 2, phase 3 and phase 4 covid questionnaires (pdfs). Note that measures from the "Relationships" section onwards were repeated from the TEDS21 twin questionnaires (see sections above), although sometimes in shortened or modified versions.

Section heading Number of items Covid study phases Measure References Related scales
Background 1 2, 3, 4 only Location: whether living in UK

(Added in phase 2)
Item created by TEDS researchers -
1 2 only Postcode where twin located

(Added in phase 2 then dropped)
Item created by TEDS researchers -
4 All CRISIS:
people living at home, home environment
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS). -
Health 12-13 All CRISIS:
coronavirus exposure, worries about health, positive changes
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS), with additional items created by TEDS researchers.

(Several item changes were made between phases: see covid study changes between phases (pdf))
-
3 4 only Vaccination and duration of symptoms

(Added in phase 4)
Items created by TEDS researchers -
11 4 only The Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (FTQ)

(Added in phase 4)
Chalder T, Berelowitz G, Pawlikowska T, Watts L, Wessely S, Wright D, and Wallace P. The development of a Fatigue Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. (1993) 37; 2; 147-153 -
Changes 3-6 All CRISIS:
changes in education
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS), with additional items created by TEDS researchers.

(Several item changes were made between phases: see covid study changes between phases (pdf))
-
5-7 All CRISIS:
changes in employment
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS), with additional items created by TEDS researchers.

(Several item changes were made between phases: see covid study changes between phases (pdf))
-
16-17 All CRISIS:
changes in, and worries about, lifestyle in general including social contacts and finances
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS), with additional items created by TEDS researchers.

(Several item changes were made between phases: see covid study changes between phases (pdf))
-
1-2 All CRISIS:
sleep patterns

(one of the two items was dropped after phase 1)
Adapted from the The CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS; https://github.com/nimh-mbdu/CRISIS). -
Relationships 5 1 only Parent Contact.
Questions relating to frequency of contact with female and male parent-figures: 2 questions about each after a screening question.
Modified and shortened from the TEDS21 (phase 1) version

(Dropped after phase 1).
Items created by TEDS researchers. -
3 All CLAS - Love and Relationships. Items adapted by Kerry Schofield from the original CLAS scale, and shortened from 16 to 3 items.
(Identical to the TEDS21 phase 1 measure.)
Lavallee, L. F., Hatch, P. M., Michalos, A. C., & McKinley, T. (2007). Development of the contentment with life assessment scale (CLAS): Using daily life experiences to verify levels of self-reported life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83, 201-244. ucv1relam1/2, ucv2relam1/2, ucv3relam1/2, ucv4relam1/2
6 All Intimate Partner Violence Questions
(same 6 items as in TEDS21 phase 1, but introduced with a different time frame).
Adapted from the 'Intimate Partner Violence Questions' section of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Violence Prevention questionnaire: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ipv/ipvandsvscreening.pdf ucv1parvm1/2, ucv2parvm1/2, ucv3parvm1/2, ucv4parvm1/2
12 All Multidimensional Peer Victimisation Scale
(shortened version of the TEDS21 phase 2 measure)
Mynard, H., and Joseph, S. (2000). Development of the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 169-178. ucv1victphyt1/2, ucv1victvert1/2, ucv1victcybt1/2, ucv1victt1/2,
ucv2victphyt1/2, ucv2victvert1/2, ucv2victcybt1/2, ucv2victt1/2,
ucv3victphyt1/2, ucv3victvert1/2, ucv3victcybt1/2, ucv3victt1/2,
ucv4victphyt1/2, ucv4victvert1/2, ucv4victcybt1/2, ucv4victt1/2
5 1 only Children of twins

(Dropped after phase 1)
Questions devised by the CoTEDS study team, to identify twins with children who might participate in the CoTEDS (Children of TEDS) study.
(Shortened and simplified version of the TEDS21 phase 1 questions.)
-
Thoughts and attitudes 9 All GOALS.
Translated from German into English and adapted by members of the TEDS team. Shortened from 72 items to 9 items.
(Identical to the TEDS21 phase 1 measure.)
Pöhlmann, K. & Brunstein, J.C. (1997). GOALS: Ein Fragebogen zur Messung von Lebenszielen. Diagnostica, 43, 63-79 ucv1goalfult1/2, ucv1goalrelt1/2, ucv2goalfult1/2, ucv2goalrelt1/2, ucv3goalfult1/2, ucv3goalrelt1/2, ucv4goalfult1/2, ucv4goalrelt1/2
5 All Purpose in Life.
Shortened from 20 to 5 items.
(Identical to the TEDS21 phase 1 measure.)
Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: The psychometric approach to Frankl's concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of clinical psychology, 20(2), 200-207 ucv1pilm1/2, ucv2pilm1/2, ucv3pilm1/2, ucv4pilm1/2
1 All BSA government and democracy, item relating to health care provision (same as one of the TEDS21 phase 1 items of the same measure) Taken from the NatCen Social Research's British Social Attitudes (BSA) Survey (http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/british-social-attitudes/). -
5 1, 2, 3 only CLAS Life Satisfaction Scale - Community. Shortened from 9 to 5 items.
(Identical to the TEDS21 phase 1 measure.)

(Dropped after phase 3)
Lavallee et al. (2007). Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using Daily Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83(2), 201-244. DOI 10.1007/s11205-006-9054-6 ucv1commm1/2, ucv2commm1/2, ucv3commm1/2
1 All OECD Financial Literacy: General Money Attitude and Behaviour
(same as one of the TEDS21 phase 1 items of the same measure).
Adapted from sections of the OECD instrument for measuring financial literacy: https://www.oecd.org/finance/financial-education/49319977.pdf -
1 1 only Life Events
(same as one of the TEDS21 phase 2 items of the same measure but introduced with a different time frame).

(Dropped after phase 1)
Measure created by the TEDS team, loosely adapted from 'negative' life events items of the Coddington scale as used at age 16:
Coddington, R. D. (1972). The significance of life events as etiological factors in the diseases of children: II: a study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 205-213
-
1 All Leisure and Hobbies
(same as one of the TEDS21 phase 2 items of the same measure).
Lavallee, L. F., Hatch, P. M., Michalos, A. C., & McKinley, T. (2007). Development of the contentment with life assessment scale (CLAS): Using daily life experiences to verify levels of self-reported life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 83, 201-244 -
Substance use 3 All Alcohol: adapted from Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scale.
(Shortened and adapted from the TEDS21 phase 2 measure.)
  1. Items 1 and 2 are adapted from part of the AUDIT scale: https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/AUDIT.pdf
  2. Item 3 devised by the TEDS team
ucv1alco2un1/2, ucv2alco2un1/2, ucv3alco2un1/2, ucv4alco2un1/2
6 All Smoking and vaping
Items 1-3: smoking. Two screening items plus an adapted item from the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence.
Items 4-6: vaping.
This is an adapted and shortended version of the equivalent measure in the TEDS21 phase 2 questionnaie.
  1. Items 1-2 and 4-6 devised by the TEDS team
  2. Item 3: Heatherton, T.F., Kozlowski, L.T., Frecker, R.C. and FAGERSTROM, K.O., 1991. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. British journal of addiction, 86(9), pp.1119-1127.
-
3 All Cannabis use
(adapted and shortened from the equivalent measure in the TEDS21 phase 2 questionnaire).
Legleye, S., Piontek, D. and Kraus, L., 2011. Psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a French sample of adolescents. Drug and alcohol dependence, 113(2-3), pp.229-235. -
Wellbeing 25 All SDQ: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
(same as in TEDS21 phase 1 but introduced with a different time scale).
Goodman, R. (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586 ucv1sdqanxt1/2, ucv1sdqpert1/2, ucv1sdqhypt1/2, ucv1sdqcont1/2, ucv1sdqprot1/2, ucv1sdqbeht1/2,
ucv2sdqanxt1/2, ucv2sdqpert1/2, ucv2sdqhypt1/2, ucv2sdqcont1/2, ucv2sdqprot1/2, ucv2sdqbeht1/2,
ucv3sdqanxt1/2, ucv3sdqpert1/2, ucv3sdqhypt1/2, ucv3sdqcont1/2, ucv3sdqprot1/2, ucv3sdqbeht1/2,
ucv4sdqanxt1/2, ucv4sdqpert1/2, ucv4sdqhypt1/2, ucv4sdqcont1/2, ucv4sdqprot1/2, ucv4sdqbeht1/2
10 All General Anxiety: the Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Adult.
(Identical to the TEDS21 phase 2 measure.)
Craske M, Wittchen U, Bogels S, Stein M, Andrews G, Lebeu R. (2013). Severity measure for generalized anxiety disorder, Adults. American Psychiatric Association. ucv1ganxt1/2, ucv2ganxt1/2, ucv3ganxt1/2, ucv4ganxt1/2
8 All Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ), shortened to 8 items.
(Identical to the version used in both phase 1 and phase 2 of TEDS21.)
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F., and Silver, D. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 1-12. ucv1mfqt1/2, ucv2mfqt1/2, ucv3mfqt1/2, ucv4mfqt1/2
1 All Self-harm: suicidal feelings
(same as item 2 of the measure used in phases 1 and 2 of TEDS21, but introduced with a different time scale).
Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J., & Tanner, J. (1974). Suicidal feelings in the general population: a prevalence study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 124(582), 460-469 -
Physical activity 3 All Activity questionnaire. Brief questionnaire assessing physical activity levels
(same as the measure in TEDS21 phase 1 but introduced with a different time frame).
Questions devised by TEDS researchers. ucv1actvm1/2, ucv2actvm1/2, ucv3actvm1/2, ucv4actvm1/2
4 All Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale.
Further shortened to 4 items, with modified response options, from the version used in TEDS21 phase 1.
Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Carrier, L. M., Cheever, N. A., & Rokkum, J. (2013). The media and technology usage and attitudes scale: An empirical investigation. Computers in human behavior, 29(6), 2501-2511. -
3 1, 2, 3 only Volunteering.
Two items from the 5-item scale used in TEDS21 phase 1 (which was taken from the Age 20 ALSPAC booklet) plus an additional item devised by TEDS researchers.

(Dropped after phase 3)
Originally taken from page 42 of the ALSPAC questionnaire "It's all about you" at age 20: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/alspac/migrated/documents/ques-yp20-all-about-you.pdf ucv1volnt1/2, ucv2volnt1/2, ucv3volnt1/2

G-game twin cognitive test

In the table below, measures are listed in the order that they were presented to twins in the g-game web study. For more details, refer to the g-game description and the g-game test items.

The g-game was designed to be short, with 40 items in total including 20 items from verbal sub-tests and 20 items from non-verbal sub-tests. The measures used, and the selected items from each measure, were chosen after repeated piloting.

The QC items, which did not contribute to sub-test scoring, were devised by members of the TEDS team and were not taken from the original source materials.

Activity name shown to twins Sub-test type Number of items Measure Reference
Mountain verbal 8
(plus a QC item)
Mill Hill Vocabulary.
The 8 items chosen were a subset of the items of the same test used at age 16.
Raven, J, Raven, JC, and Court, JH (1998). Mill Hill vocabulary scale. Oxford: OPP.
Space non-verbal 9
(plus a QC item)
ISTO: 2 items
(items 3 and 6)
-
NVRA ("Sequences"): 3 items
(items 1, 2 and 4)
-
NVRB ("Groups"): 4 items
(items 5, 7, 8 and 9)
-
Tower verbal 6 Missing Letter -
Ocean non-verbal 11
(plus a QC item)
Ravens Progressive Matrices.
The 11 items chosen were taken from sub-tests D, E and F of the published measure, and were a subset of the items of the same test used at age 16.
Raven, J.C., Court, J.H., and Raven, J. (1996), Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Woodland verbal 6
(plus a QC item)
Verbal Reasoning -